14 Mental Diseases

14 00 Alcoholic-induced mental disorders
14 01 Anorexia Nervosa

14 02 Apathy

14 03 Bulimia Nervosa

14 04 Dementia
14 05 Drug-induced mental disorders
14 06 Mania

14 10 Paranoia

14 11 Persistent mental disorders
14 12 Personality disorders
14 13 Schizophrenia

A mental disorder is a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotional regulation, or behavior.  It is usually associated with distress or impairment in critical areas of functioning. There are many different types of mental disorders.  Mental disorders may also be referred to as mental health conditions. The latter is a broader term covering mental disorders, psychosocial disabilities, and (other) mental states associated with significant distress, impairment in functioning, or risk of self-harm.

When you have found your disease or condition, you look for the treatment color. The treatment colors are magenta (red-blue), blue, cyan (blue-green), green, yellow (red-green), and red. I give the treatment colors a number. Magenta = 0, blue = 1, cyan = 2, green = 3, yellow = 4, and red = 5. Alcoholic-induced Mental Disorders would then be categorized as 14-00-0. Here, the last digit, the treatment color, is magenta. The first two digits are the disease/condition group (Mental Diseases is 14). The next two digits (Alcoholic-induced Mental Disorders is 00) are the illness within the group, and the last digit (magenta is 0) is the treatment color.

When you use the projector, click on your treatment color, and a large image of it will appear. Make the color cover the whole page and project it onto yourself. When you use the LED light bulb, you choose your color manually.

Chronic alcohol abuse may lead to a variety of complications following abrupt alcohol cessation, the mildest and most common presentation being withdrawal symptoms of anxiety, insomnia, tremors, palpitations, and diaphoresis, with the patient’s orientation left intact. The more severe presentation of chronic alcohol abuse is that of delirium tremens (DT), aptly named for the delirium, or sudden and severe confusion, that begins two to four days after abstinence. Additional findings of DT include agitation, fever, tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis, and hallucinations.

Less well-characterized is a manifestation of chronic alcohol abuse termed alcoholic hallucinosis, or alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (AIPD), a predominantly hallucinatory type. AIPD may manifest with visual, auditory, or tactile hallucinations, delusions of persecution, and mood disturbances, though the level of consciousness and the patient’s vital signs remain intact, distinguishing it from DT.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder often characterized by a distorted body image—significant weight loss and difficulty maintaining appropriate body weight. The exact cause of anorexia is not well understood, but it involves a combination of self-esteem and body image issues, genetic factors, and societal pressures.

Symptoms of anorexia nervosa can include restricting food intake, compulsive exercise, overuse of laxatives, extreme weight loss, and preoccupation with weight, food, calories, and diet. Poor nutritional status and weight loss can also cause symptoms throughout the body.

Possible associated signs and symptoms are dizziness, constipation, coldness, sleep disturbances, irregular menstruation, muscle weakness, poor wound healing, thinning hair, damage to the teeth’s enamel, delayed puberty, and difficulty concentrating.

Apathy is a lack of motivation to do anything or to care about what’s going on. It can be a symptom of mental health problems like Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease and often lasts a long time. You may not desire to do anything involving thinking or your emotions. The term comes from the Greek word “pathos,” which means passion or emotion. Apathy is a lack of those feelings.

But it isn’t the same thing as depression, though it can be hard to tell the two conditions apart. Feeling “blah” about life is common in both situations. It isn’t sadness or anger, either. Rather than feeling these emotions, you don’t feel much of anything. Things that used to make you happy don’t excite you anymore. You no longer feel motivated to achieve your goals.

Everyone loses interest in things at one time or another, but when it happens frequently, it can affect relationships, job performance, and the ability to enjoy life.

Bulimia nervosa, commonly called bulimia, is a severe, potentially life-threatening eating disorder. People with bulimia may secretly binge — eating large amounts of food with a loss of control over the eating — and then purge, trying to get rid of the extra calories in an unhealthy way.

To get rid of calories and prevent weight gain, people with bulimia may use different methods. For example, they may regularly self-induce vomiting or misuse laxatives, weight-loss supplements, diuretics, or enemas after bingeing. They may also use other ways to eliminate calories and prevent weight gain, such as fasting, strict dieting, or excessive exercise.

Dementia is a term for symptoms that severely affect memory, thinking, and social abilities and interfere with daily life. It isn’t a specific disease, but several conditions can cause dementia.

Though dementia generally involves memory loss, memory loss has different causes. Having memory loss alone doesn’t mean you have dementia, although it’s often one of the early signs of the condition.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of progressive dementia in older adults, but there are several other causes of dementia. Depending on the cause, some dementia symptoms might be reversible.

Psychosis may also be associated with certain types of drug or alcohol abuse. Hallucinogenic drugs like LSD, PCP, peyote, and magic mushrooms may be the first to come to mind. However, while these drugs may regularly elicit profoundly altered states of mind and certain psychotic features, several other types of substances, when taken for an extended period and in large enough amounts, can lead to drug-induced psychosis.

In some cases, it is not the primary intoxication that results in psychosis but the withdrawal from a substance.

Mania refers to an abnormally elevated mood state. It is characterized by such symptoms as inappropriate elation, increased energy, irritability, severe insomnia, rapid or loud speech, and disconnected and racing thoughts. In addition, impulsivity, markedly increased energy and activity levels, increased libido (sexual desire), poor judgment, and inappropriate social behavior. Grandiose thinking (believing one has unique abilities or powers) is often associated with mania. Those suffering from mania also may jump from one topic to another in conversation.

Mania is a characteristic feature of bipolar disorder, sometimes referred to as bipolar depression. A person must have experienced at least one manic episode to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Major depressive episodes often alternate with manic episodes in bipolar disorder. The cause of bipolar disorder is not well understood, but genetic and environmental factors are essential.

Paranoia refers to the perception or suspicion that others have hostile or aggressive motives in interacting with them (for example, “they are out to get me”) when there is no reason for these suspicions. People experiencing paranoia believe that others are persecuting them and have delusional ideas about themselves as central figures in scenarios that, in reality, have little relevance to them. As a result, they may mistrust others and often remain in a state of suspicion. Minor feelings of paranoia are common, but severe paranoia can cause significant fear and anxiety and can have a pronounced effect on social functioning. One can observe feelings of paranoia with many psychological disorders, including schizophrenia and several medical diseases that can affect brain function, ranging from Alzheimer’s disease to Multiple sclerosis. Intoxication from alcohol or drug abuse may also lead to feelings of paranoia.

Severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) is a group of severe mental health disorders defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual used by mental health professionals to diagnose clients. The SPMI category includes Major Depression, Bipolar Disorders, Schizophrenia, and Borderline Personality Disorder.

A personality disorder is a mental disorder with a rigid and unhealthy pattern of thinking, functioning, and behaving. A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. As a result, it causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work, and school.

In some cases, the person does not realize his personality disorder because his thinking and behavior seem natural to him, and he may blame others for the challenges he faces.

Personality disorders usually begin in the teenage years or early adulthood. There are many types of personality disorders. However, some types may become less obvious throughout middle age.

Types of personality disorders are grouped into three clusters based on similar characteristics and symptoms. Thus, many people with one personality disorder also have signs and symptoms of at least one other personality disorder.

The symptoms of schizophrenia vary in quality and intensity from individual to individual, but delusions or a failure to recognize what is real is characteristic. In addition, the illusions of schizophrenia can cause hallucinations in sight (visual hallucination), sound (auditory hallucination), or touch (tactile hallucination).

Other symptoms of schizophrenia include disordered or confused thoughts. It can be associated with talking nonsense and disorganized speech. A decrease in social interactivity or being socially withdrawn and agitation are common. In addition, it can lead to other socially negative symptoms and unusual behavior.